Diocese of Harbin / Heilongjiang
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According to the open Church structure, Heilongjiang (Harbin) diocese covers the whole province of Heilongjiang in northeastern China, with a land area of approximately 469,000 square kilometers, including 19 cities and 39 counties.

Population

Harbin city had 10,635,971 inhabitants at the 2010 census, while there are 38,250,000 people in Heilongjiang province.

Language

Mandarian Chinese and Northeastern Dialect are in use in the diocesan territory.

History

The Apostolic Administration of Harbin was erected on May 28, 1931. Archbishops Celso Costantini and Mario Zanin, Apostolic Delegates to China, had been its apostolic administrators successively.

After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, all foreign missioners were expelled from the mainland. The Apostolic Administration of Harbin became a part of Harbin diocese when the government-sanctioned "open" Church structure created the new diocese by merging in Heilongjiang province in 1959.

Father Peter Wang Ruihuan became the first "self-elected and self-ordained" bishop of Harbin without papal mandate in the same year. The diocese was renamed as Heilongjiang diocese in 1983. Father Liu Huanbo was ordained coadjutor bishop of Heilongjiang without papal mandate in 1990 and succeeded Bishop Wang upon his death two years later. The diocese remained vacant after Bishop Liu died in 1997.After Bishop Liu died in 1997, the diocese remained vacant until 2012 when Father Joseph Yue Fusheng received episcopal ordination without papal mandate. He was subsequently excommunicated by the Holy See. 

Transportation

Harbin is one of the largest railway hubs in Northeast China. Five major railways (Jingha, Binsui, Binzhou, Binbei and Labin) meet here. Currently 138 trains terminate in or pass through Harbin daily, with trains available to Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Guangzhou, Jinan and many other major cities in China.

The Harbin Taiping International Airport is the second largest international airport in Northeast China. There are flights to/from more than 30 large and medium-sized cities, including Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Hong Kong.

There are more than 1,900 rivers in Heilongjiang, including the Songhua River, Heilongjiang River and Wusulijiang River, creating a convenient system of waterway transportation. Harbin harbor is one of eight inland ports in China and the largest of its type in Northeast China. Available from mid-April until the beginning of November, passenger ships sail from Harbin up the Songhua River to Qiqihar, or downstream to Jiamusi, Tongjiang, and Khabarovsk in Russia.

Climate

Harbin features a monsoon-influenced, humid continental climate with hot, humid summers and very cold winters. Its "Ice City" nickname is well-earned, as its winters are dry and bitterly cold, with a 24-hour average in January of only ?18.4 ?C. Yet the city sees little precipitation during the winter and is often sunny. Summers can be hot, with a July mean temperature of 23.0 ?C. Summer is also when most of the year's rainfall occurs. Spring and autumn constitute brief transition periods with variable wind directions. Extreme temperatures have ranged from ?41.4 ?C to 39.2 ?C.

Economy

Harbin is the center of Heilongjiang province economy development and also is an integrated city with industry as the principal part of economy and all three industries (eg. agricultural, industrial and servicing industries) general booming. The city is striving hard towards becoming the key trade and shopping center of the region. It is located in one of the fastest growing regions in the world and can boast a number of advantages such as an abundance of natural resources, good transport system and plenty of human resources.

In 2008, Harbin's GDP reached 286.82 billion yuan (US$44.9 billion), an increase of 13.2 percent over the previous year. Tertiary industry output remained the largest component of GDP reaching 140.04 billion yuan, an increase of 13.9 percent from the previous year. The GDP per capita was 29,012 yuan.

Topography

Harbin, the provincial capital, is located in southern Heilongjiang province, on the southeastern edge of the Songnen Plain. The city centre also sits on the southern bank of the middle Songhua River.

Culture

The Harbin local culture is based on Han culture, combined with Manchu culture and Russian culture. This combination of cultures influences the local architecture style, food, music, and customs. The city of Harbin was appointed a UNESCO City of Music on June 22, 2010 as part of the Creative Cities Network.

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