Pope John Paul II on June 14, 1996 erected the Latin rite diocese of Neyyattinkara, based in southern most part of Kerala. The origin of Christianity in this area dates back to 1600, when people who received baptism from St. Francis Xavier came and settled in Neyyattinkara, Vlathankara, Amaravila and Parassala.
In 1698, attempts were made to start a mission at Nemom. In 1707, Jesuit Father Severia Borgis started Nemom Mission. The first converts were from the Nair community. The first church in the area erected in 1775 at Amaravila.
Widespread missionary activities in the diocese began at the dawn of 20th century, when the area was under Quilon diocese. It was the saintly Carmelite Archbishop Aloysius Maria Benziger, bishop of Quilon in 1905, worked hard to spread the faith in area. His saintly life, powerful leadership, missionary zeal and generous assistance to missionary priests paved the way to the formation of several ecclesial communities and erection of many churches.
The diocese of Neyyattinkara was created bifurcating the diocese of Trivandrum in 1996. Rev. Dr. Vincent Samuel was appointed its first Bishop.
Rev. Dr. Vincent Samuel was ordained as bishop at ceremony led by Cardinal Joseph Tomko on November 1, 1996. Bishop Samuel took Ecclesiastical possession of the diocese on November 5, 1996. The diocese of Neyyattinkara consists of two taluks of Neyyattinkara and Nedumangad except the area that was erstwhile under the Padroado.